A musical instrument with a big belly, a brief and curved handle, a beam and a plectrum. Its curved back is made of 19 or 21 boards within the form of a circle. The body is hollow. In the midst of the front part called the chest, there are small cavities on the sides called “roses”.
Oud instrument (written as “ud” in Turkish) is the ancestor of the European lute, name of which derives from “al-ud”. It isn’t a native Turkish instrument but it has been performed in Anatolia for at the least five centuries. Besides, within the history, the oud has been played by a number of civilizations in Central Asia, Mesopotamia, Iran, Arabia. Accordingly, there are several types of ouds besides Turkish oud. The oud instrument occupies an awesome place in Turkish Art Music, Turkish city music (in fasil orchestras) and in arabesk music. Oud has been known from the documents and oral tradition because the king, sultan or emir of musical instruments.
History of Oud
In some sources, it is said that Farabi invented the oud, however long before Farabi, there are oud and related instruments in miniatures and reliefs. The primary reason why Farabi is perceived as an inventor is that he is a musician who has mastered the oud and the tuning system he delivered to the oud. Farabi, who was one of those who gave the most complete information about the oud in his period, added the 5th string to the oud, which was a 4-string instrument till that time. In regards to the oud, Ibn Sina (980/1037) from Farabi says in his book Kitabu’ş Şifa that it is likely one of the most well-known instruments. Tells technical information akin to chords and pitches with figures. While musical instruments have been talked about in the Ikhwan-i Safa tracts within the tenth century, it was acknowledged that the most beautiful of those was the oud.
The frets on the handle of the oud, preserved in the Farabi period, had been deserted towards the top of the 10th century. The oud was previously played with a wooden plectrum. The well-known Andalusian musician Ziryab (eleventh century) changed it with a plectrum made of eagle feather. At present, plectrums made of flexible plastic are usually used.
The oud instrument made its way to Europe by means of Spain. In the thirteenth century, the crusaders brought it back to Europe, and in time, it turned the lute. That’s why lute takes its name after the oud (‘le ut’ in old French), however it’s been added totally different options from oud, like frets.
The oud, also which turned the focus within the Ottoman palace in the 15th century, gained an irreplaceable worth that the general public began to make use of in classical Turkish music within the nineteenth century.
Oud instrument has a large soundbox linked to a brief neck. The instrument has a pear-shaped body which is a deep, striped bowl made from lightweight wood. The wood ought to be light because the bowl is meant to reverberate when it is struck. The soundboard, the front part of the body, accommodates one or two, typically three sound holes. These sound holes may be oval or they can be ornamented relying on the lands they’re played on. There’s a piece of fish-skin or leather between the bridge and the sound gap in an effort to protect the stomach from the strokes of the plectrum. The bowl of the oud is shaped by thin woods or ribs bent over a mold. The number of the ribs varies from 16 to 21. The tuning pegs of the oud are screwed to the pegbox.
The quality of the fabric used in the making of the oudis important. The more the material is diverse, the higher it sounds. A high-quality oud’s face is made from spruce. The tuning pegs and fingerboard are constructed from ebony. Maple, walnut, palisander and mahogany are used for the bowl.
The oud does not have any customary measurement or number of strings. But on the whole, all the types of ouds have 11 gut strings which might be organized in five double-courses with a sixth, single bass string. Oud is performed with a plectrum. Its fretless neck allows the instrument to generate any intervals or microtones particular to the Middle Jap music. Oud instrument is suitable so that you can enjoy Turkish, Iran or Arab music by taking part in makams/maqamat.
Oudis played according to 2 schools of performance. The first is “Ottoman” school and it accepts as precept the ornamentation of the sound, produced by delicate glissandos or the fingers and slight vibratos. The second approach is Egyptian approach, according to which the quantity is amplified by firm strokes of the plectrum, which makes strings resonate. This model requires another kind of virtuosity.
There are essentially six types of oud when they’re considered according to their origin. These types of oud principally differ of their timbre and there are small dimension differences between them.
Arabic oud is essentially the most known oud instrument type and maybe the preferred because of its romantic, rich and deep sound. It is heavier and slightly bigger comparing to Turkish ouds. Turkish ouds are employed in Turkey and Greece. They’ve a more treble sound. Syrian oud, which is a sub-type of Arabic oud generates a lot of overtones. Iraqi ouds may additionally be categorised under Arabic ouds. Its strings are tied to the bottom of the instrument. Because of this function, it is said that it has a floating bridge. Iranian oud, which is also called Barbat is more distinct and as a consequence of its form, it has a bass, deep, Persian sound.
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