A musical instrument with a big belly, a brief and curved handle, a beam and a plectrum. Its curved back is made of 19 or 21 boards within the shape of a circle. The body is hollow. In the course of the front part called the chest, there are two small cavities on the sides called “roses”.
Oud instrument (written as “ud” in Turkish) is the ancestor of the European lute, name of which derives from “al-ud”. It’s not a native Turkish instrument however it has been played in Anatolia for at the very least five centuries. Besides, in the history, the oud has been performed by a number of civilizations in Central Asia, Mesopotamia, Iran, Arabia. Accordingly, there are a number of types of ouds besides Turkish oud. The oud instrument occupies a fantastic place in Turkish Art Music, Turkish city music (in fasil orchestras) and in arabesk music. Oud has been known from the paperwork and oral tradition as the king, sultan or emir of musical instruments.
History of Oud
In some sources, it is said that Farabi invented the oud, but lengthy before Farabi, there are oud and similar instruments in miniatures and reliefs. The primary reason why Farabi is perceived as an inventor is that he’s a musician who has mastered the oud and the tuning system he dropped at the oud. Farabi, who was one of those who gave the most comprehensive information about the oud in his period, added the 5th string to the oud, which was a 4-string instrument until that time. In regards to the oud, Ibn Sina (980/1037) from Farabi says in his book Kitabu’ş Şifa that it is one of the most famous instruments. Tells technical information resembling chords and pitches with figures. While musical devices had been talked about in the Ikhwan-i Safa tracts within the 10th century, it was said that the most lovely of these was the oud.
The frets on the handle of the oud, preserved in the Farabi interval, were abandoned towards the end of the tenth century. The oud was previously performed with a wooden plectrum. The famous Andalusian musician Ziryab (eleventh century) replaced it with a plectrum made of eagle feather. Immediately, plectrums made of flexible plastic are typically used.
The oud instrument made its way to Europe via Spain. In the 13th century, the crusaders introduced it back to Europe, and in time, it grew to become the lute. That’s why lute takes its name after the oud (‘le ut’ in old French), however it’s been added different features from oud, like frets.
The oud, additionally which turned the focal point in the Ottoman palace within the 15th century, gained an irreplaceable value that the general public started to use in classical Turkish music in the 19th century.
Oud instrument has a big soundbox connected to a brief neck. The instrument has a pear-shaped body which is a deep, striped bowl made from lightweight wood. The wood should be light because the bowl is supposed to reverberate when it is struck. The soundboard, the entrance part of the body, incorporates one or , sometimes three sound holes. These sound holes could also be oval or they can be ornamented relying on the lands they’re performed on. There’s a piece of fish-skin or leather between the bridge and the sound hole with a view to protect the belly from the strokes of the plectrum. The bowl of the oud is formed by thin woods or ribs bent over a mold. The number of the ribs varies from 16 to 21. The tuning pegs of the oud are screwed to the pegbox.
The quality of the material used within the making of the oudis important. The more the fabric is various, the better it sounds. A high-quality oud’s face is made from spruce. The tuning pegs and fingerboard are constructed from ebony. Maple, walnut, palisander and mahogany are used for the bowl.
The oud does not have any customary size or number of strings. But usually, all the types of ouds have 11 intestine strings which are organized in five double-programs with a sixth, single bass string. Oud is played with a plectrum. Its fretless neck permits the instrument to generate any intervals or microtones particular to the Center Eastern music. Oud instrument is suitable for you to enjoy Turkish, Iran or Arab music by taking part in makams/maqamat.
Oudis played according to two schools of performance. The primary is “Ottoman” school and it accepts as precept the ornamentation of the sound, produced by delicate glissandos or the fingers and slight vibratos. The second approach is Egyptian approach, according to which the volume is amplified by firm strokes of the plectrum, which makes strings resonate. This model requires another kind of virtuosity.
There are essentially six types of oud when they are considered according to their origin. Those types of oud largely differ in their timbre and there are small size variations between them.
Arabic oud is essentially the most known oud instrument type and maybe the most popular because of its romantic, rich and deep sound. It is heavier and slightly bigger evaluating to Turkish ouds. Turkish ouds are employed in Turkey and Greece. They’ve a more treble sound. Syrian oud, which is a sub-type of Arabic oud generates numerous overtones. Iraqi ouds might also be classified under Arabic ouds. Its strings are tied to the underside of the instrument. Because of this feature, it is said that it has a floating bridge. Iranian oud, which can be called Barbat is more distinct and attributable to its shape, it has a bass, deep, Persian sound.
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