A musical instrument with a large stomach, a short and curved handle, a beam and a plectrum. Its curved back is made of 19 or 21 boards in the form of a circle. The body is hollow. In the course of the entrance section called the chest, there are two small cavities on the sides called “roses”.
Oud instrument (written as “ud” in Turkish) is the ancestor of the European lute, name of which derives from “al-ud”. It isn’t a native Turkish instrument however it has been performed in Anatolia for at the least 5 centuries. Besides, within the history, the oud has been performed by several civilizations in Central Asia, Mesopotamia, Iran, Arabia. Accordingly, there are several types of ouds besides Turkish oud. The oud instrument occupies a terrific place in Turkish Artwork Music, Turkish city music (in fasil orchestras) and in arabesk music. Oud has been known from the paperwork and oral tradition because the king, sultan or emir of musical instruments.
History of Oud
In some sources, it is said that Farabi invented the oud, however long before Farabi, there are oud and comparable devices in miniatures and reliefs. The main reason why Farabi is perceived as an inventor is that he is a musician who has mastered the oud and the tuning system he brought to the oud. Farabi, who was a kind of who gave probably the most comprehensive information about the oud in his interval, added the fifth string to the oud, which was a four-string instrument till that time. About the oud, Ibn Sina (980/1037) from Farabi says in his book Kitabu’ş Şifa that it is without doubt one of the most well-known instruments. Tells technical information resembling chords and pitches with figures. While musical instruments have been mentioned in the Ikhwan-i Safa tracts within the tenth century, it was said that the most stunning of those was the oud.
The frets on the handle of the oud, preserved within the Farabi period, had been deserted towards the end of the tenth century. The oud was previously performed with a wooden plectrum. The well-known Andalusian musician Ziryab (11th century) changed it with a plectrum made of eagle feather. Immediately, plectrums made of versatile plastic are generally used.
The oud instrument made its way to Europe by means of Spain. In the 13th century, the crusaders introduced it back to Europe, and in time, it became the lute. That’s why lute takes its name after the oud (‘le ut’ in old French), however it’s been added totally different features from oud, like frets.
The oud, additionally which grew to become the center of attention in the Ottoman palace in the fifteenth century, gained an irreplaceable worth that the public started to use in classical Turkish music in the nineteenth century.
Oud instrument has a big soundbox connected to a short neck. The instrument has a pear-formed body which is a deep, striped bowl made from lightweight wood. The wood must be light because the bowl is meant to reverberate when it is struck. The soundboard, the entrance part of the body, contains one or , sometimes three sound holes. These sound holes may be oval or they are often ornamented depending on the lands they’re performed on. There is a piece of fish-skin or leather between the bridge and the sound gap as a way to protect the stomach from the strokes of the plectrum. The bowl of the oud is shaped by thin woods or ribs bent over a mold. The number of the ribs varies from 16 to 21. The tuning pegs of the oud are screwed to the pegbox.
The quality of the fabric used within the making of the oudis important. The more the fabric is diverse, the higher it sounds. A high-quality oud’s face is made from spruce. The tuning pegs and fingerboard are constructed from ebony. Maple, walnut, palisander and mahogany are used for the bowl.
The oud does not have any customary dimension or number of strings. Yet on the whole, all the types of ouds have 11 intestine strings which might be organized in 5 double-courses with a sixth, single bass string. Oud is performed with a plectrum. Its fretless neck allows the instrument to generate any intervals or microtones particular to the Center Jap music. Oud instrument is suitable so that you can enjoy Turkish, Iran or Arab music by taking part in makams/maqamat.
Oudis played according to 2 schools of performance. The first is “Ottoman” school and it accepts as principle the ornamentation of the sound, produced by delicate glissandos or the fingers and slight vibratos. The second approach is Egyptian approach, according to which the volume is amplified by firm strokes of the plectrum, which makes strings resonate. This type requires one other kind of virtuosity.
There are essentially six types of oud when they’re considered according to their origin. Those types of oud mostly differ of their timbre and there are small measurement variations between them.
Arabic oud is probably the most known oud instrument type and maybe the preferred because of its romantic, rich and deep sound. It is heavier and slightly bigger evaluating to Turkish ouds. Turkish ouds are employed in Turkey and Greece. They have a more treble sound. Syrian oud, which is a sub-type of Arabic oud generates a lot of overtones. Iraqi ouds may additionally be categorised under Arabic ouds. Its strings are tied to the underside of the instrument. Because of this feature, it is said that it has a floating bridge. Iranian oud, which can also be called Barbat is more distinct and resulting from its shape, it has a bass, deep, Persian sound.
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