All About Oud Instrument

A musical instrument with a big stomach, a brief and curved handle, a beam and a plectrum. Its curved back is made of 19 or 21 boards in the form of a circle. The body is hollow. In the middle of the entrance part called the chest, there are two small cavities on the sides called “roses”.

Oud instrument (written as “ud” in Turkish) is the ancestor of the European lute, name of which derives from “al-ud”. It’s not a native Turkish instrument however it has been played in Anatolia for a minimum of five centuries. Besides, within the history, the oud has been performed by a number of civilizations in Central Asia, Mesopotamia, Iran, Arabia. Accordingly, there are several types of ouds besides Turkish oud. The oud instrument occupies an amazing place in Turkish Artwork Music, Turkish city music (in fasil orchestras) and in arabesk music. Oud has been known from the documents and oral tradition because the king, sultan or emir of musical instruments.

History of Oud

In some sources, it is said that Farabi invented the oud, however lengthy before Farabi, there are oud and related instruments in miniatures and reliefs. The principle reason why Farabi is perceived as an inventor is that he is a musician who has mastered the oud and the tuning system he brought to the oud. Farabi, who was a kind of who gave probably the most comprehensive information concerning the oud in his interval, added the fifth string to the oud, which was a 4-string instrument till that time. In regards to the oud, Ibn Sina (980/1037) from Farabi says in his book Kitabu’ş Şifa that it is among the most well-known instruments. Tells technical information akin to chords and pitches with figures. While musical devices have been mentioned in the Ikhwan-i Safa tracts within the 10th century, it was said that essentially the most lovely of these was the oud.

The frets on the handle of the oud, preserved within the Farabi interval, had been deserted towards the top of the 10th century. The oud was previously performed with a wooden plectrum. The famous Andalusian musician Ziryab (11th century) changed it with a plectrum made of eagle feather. At this time, plectrums made of flexible plastic are generally used.

The oud instrument made its way to Europe by means of Spain. Within the thirteenth century, the crusaders brought it back to Europe, and in time, it became the lute. That’s why lute takes its name after the oud (‘le ut’ in old French), but it’s been added completely different options from oud, like frets.

The oud, additionally which grew to become the focal point in the Ottoman palace in the 15th century, gained an irreplaceable value that the public began to make use of in classical Turkish music within the nineteenth century.

Oud instrument has a big soundbox linked to a brief neck. The instrument has a pear-formed body which is a deep, striped bowl made from lightweight wood. The wood ought to be light because the bowl is meant to reverberate when it is struck. The soundboard, the entrance part of the body, comprises one or , generally three sound holes. These sound holes could also be oval or they can be ornamented depending on the lands they’re performed on. There’s a piece of fish-skin or leather between the bridge and the sound hole so as to protect the belly from the strokes of the plectrum. The bowl of the oud is shaped by thin woods or ribs bent over a mold. The number of the ribs varies from sixteen to 21. The tuning pegs of the oud are screwed to the pegbox.

The quality of the material used within the making of the oudis important. The more the fabric is numerous, the better it sounds. A high-quality oud’s face is made from spruce. The tuning pegs and fingerboard are constructed from ebony. Maple, walnut, palisander and mahogany are used for the bowl.

The oud does not have any commonplace size or number of strings. Yet generally, all the types of ouds have eleven gut strings that are organized in five double-courses with a sixth, single bass string. Oud is played with a plectrum. Its fretless neck permits the instrument to generate any intervals or microtones particular to the Middle Japanese music. Oud instrument is suitable so that you can enjoy Turkish, Iran or Arab music by playing makams/maqamat.

Oudis performed according to 2 schools of performance. The first is “Ottoman” school and it accepts as principle the ornamentation of the sound, produced by delicate glissandos or the fingers and slight vibratos. The second approach is Egyptian approach, according to which the amount is amplified by firm strokes of the plectrum, which makes strings resonate. This model requires another kind of virtuosity.

There are essentially six types of oud when they are considered according to their origin. Those types of oud largely differ of their timbre and there are small measurement variations between them.

Arabic oud is the most known oud instrument type and possibly the most well-liked because of its romantic, rich and deep sound. It’s heavier and slightly bigger comparing to Turkish ouds. Turkish ouds are employed in Turkey and Greece. They’ve a more treble sound. Syrian oud, which is a sub-type of Arabic oud generates a lot of overtones. Iraqi ouds may additionally be categorized under Arabic ouds. Its strings are tied to the bottom of the instrument. Because of this characteristic, it is said that it has a floating bridge. Iranian oud, which can be called Barbat is more distinct and on account of its shape, it has a bass, deep, Persian sound.

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  14. با بالا رفتن سن والدین، جسمشان
    در برابر شرایط، بیماریها، محیط و فضا آسیب پذیر میشود.
    این زمانی است که باید از آنها مراقبت شود تا زندگی
    شاد و سلامتی را داشته باشند.

    با افزایش سن،‌کارهای روزمره دشوارتر میشود.
    توانایی زندگی در خانه باعث احساس
    راحتی و استقلال میشود. خدمات پرستاری در خانه
    همچنین میتواند به بیماران کمک کند تا سطح اعتماد به
    نفس خودشان را حفظ و یا افزایش بدهند.
    زندگی در یک خانه سالمندان یا تسهیلات
    زندگی باعث میشوند تا افراد سالمند احساس شکست، درماندگی،‌افسردگی و یا حتی تلخی کنند..

    با توجه به افزایش جمعیت سالخوردگان در
    کشور مراقبت از سالمندان در منزل نیاز جدید جامعه است.
    مراقبت از سالمند در صف گرفتن مجوز به عنوان یک رشته دانشگاهی جدید
    است. نگهداری از سالمند یکی از مشغولیت های ذهنی افرادی
    است که والدین سالخورده دارند. سالمندان نیاز های خاص خود را دارند که شامل : عاطفی ، معیشتی و … می باشد.
    تمایل سالمندان و فرزندانشان فراهم کردن نیازهای آنان در منزل است.
    مراقبت سالمندان یک شغل نیست بلکه
    عشق است

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  18. واحد طب تسکینی و مراقبت های تسکینی در منزل
    مرکز خدمات تخصصی پزشکی و پرستاری در
    منزل
    حامیان سلامت رضوی مبادرت به راه
    اندازی واحد طب تسکینی نموده تا بتوانیم خدمت نوینی به
    بیماران و خانواده ها نیازمند ارایه نماییم

    براساس تعریف سال 2002 میلادی سازمان
    بهداشت جهانی مراقبتهای تسکینی
    مجموعهای از اقدامات هستند با هدف ارتقای
    کیفیت زندگی بیماران و خانواده های
    آنـان ، بـرای برطـرف نمـودن مشـکلات و معضـلات
    ناشـی از بیمـاریهـای صعب العلاج و
    تهدید کننده زندگی ( illness threatening-Life) بواسطه پیشگیری یا برطرف نمودن دردهای تشخیص زودرس ، ارزیابی کامل و درمان درد و سایر مشکلات (روحی-روانی و فیزیولوژیک)

    مراقبت های بیماران بدحال در مشهد
    مراقبت های بیماران بدحال در مشهد
    . شرح خدمات واحد طب تسکینی و مراقبت های تسکینی در منزل حامیان
    سلامت رضوی شامل

    تسکین درد و دیگر علائم ناراحت کننده بیمار در منزل کنار خانواده را میسر می کند.

    زندگی را تصدیق می کند و مرگ را به عنوان فرآیندی طبیعی در نظر می
    گیرد.
    نه مرگ را به تعویق می اندازد نه به آن شتاب می بخشد
    جنبه های روانی و معنوی مراقبت از
    بیمار را ادغام می کند
    مرکز حامیان سلامت رضوی را برای کمک به زندگی فعالانه بیماران تا وقت مرگ برنامه های مراقبتی متنوعی ارائه می دهد.

    واحد طب تسکینی مرکز حامیان سلامت رضوی برای
    کمک به خانواده ها در روبرو
    شدن با مسئله در طول دوران مریضی بیمار و
    در سـوگ مـرگش ارائه میکند
    همچنین با استفاده از رویکردی تیمی به نیازهای بیماران و خانواده شان رسیدگی
    می کند، و اگـر لازم باشـد، شـامل مشـاوره درباره مرگ
    عزیزشان است.
    هدف این واحد کیفیت زندگی را افزایش می دهدو ممکن است همچنین دوره
    بیماری را تحت تأثیر مثبت قرار دهد.

    در اوایل دوره بیماری در ارتباط با شیوه های درمانی دیگر مانند شیمی
    درمانی و پرتو درمانی که قصد دارند طول عمرآنان،
    بابیمار را زیاد کنند به خانواده بیماران وهمچنین بیماران کمک
    می شود
    این خدمات شامل بررسی های موردنیاز برای درک و مدیریت بهتر عوارض ناراحت کننده بالینی می باشد
    خدماتی که واحد مراقبت های تسکینی حامیان
    سلامت رضوی از چند دیدگاه قابل بررسی است،
    اینکه

    این خدمات چه زمانی پس از تشخیص بیماری قابل ارائه هستند؟

    خدمات این نظام برای ارائه به چه کسانی تنظیم شده است؟

    خدماتی که این واحد ارائه مـیدهـد اساسا چه ابعادی
    را در بر میگیرد و اینکه
    خدمات به لحاظ میزان تخصصی بودن
    آنها در چه سـطوحی قابـل تقسـیم
    بنـدی هستند؟

    شروع مراقبتهای حمایتی و تسکینی
    بیماران مختلف بر اساس سن ، جنس ، مرحله و نوع
    بیماری نیازهای مختلفی به حمایت های تسکینی
    دارند. به طور سنتی باور بر این بود که تنها بیمارانی که در مراحل انتهایی زندگی هستند نیازمند مراقبت های حمـایتی-

    تسـکینی هسـتند. بـه عبارتی برای
    بیمارانی که هیچ گزینه ای

    درمانی در دسترس نبود در مواردی برای برطـرف نمـودن علائـم بیمـار
    بـرای وی اقداماتی به انجام
    میرسید تا علائم فیزیولوژیک
    بیمار به صورت کامل یا نسبی برطرف گردد.
    امروزه صاحب نظران معتقدند هرچند نیاز به خدمات
    مراقبتی در روزهای آخر زندگی برجسته تر است، نیاز به
    چنین مراقبت- هایی در بسیاری از مواقع
    از همان روزهای اول تشخیص بیمـاریهـایی چـون سـرطان وجـود دارد.

    زنـدگی بیمارانی که به بیماری مزمنی چون سرطان گرفتار میشوند، از همان لحظـات اول تشـخیص و حتـی در مـواردی قبـل از
    تشخیص یا حین تشخیص بیماری
    تحت تاثیر این بیماری قرار میگیرد.

    واحد طب تسکینی برای هر بیماری با توجه بـه مرحلـه بیماری و شدت آن برنامه مراقبتی مخصوصی دارد تا این اثر منفی بر روی
    زندگی را به حداقل ممکن کاهش دهد.

    طب تسکینی مر کز حامیان سلامت رضوی از نظر خدمات مراقبت های حمایتی و تسکینی فقط به جنبه های جسمانی بیمار محدود
    نبوده و جنبه های روانی و معنوی موضوع همواره
    مورد توجه قرار می دهد.

    همانگونه که در تعریف مربوط به مراقبت های حمایتی و تسکینی به اشاره شد،
    امیدوار کردن بیمار به ادامه زنـدگی، فعـال نگه داشتن او در عرصه فعالیت اجتماعی و کمک به بیمار با کنار آمدن با موضوعی تحت عنوان مرگ
    بعنـوان یـک فراینـد طبیعی و اجتناب ناپذیر از اهم موضوعاتی هستند که نظام مراقبتهای حمایتی و تسکینی با ارائه آنهـا در تـلاش اسـت تـا کیفیت بقای
    بیمار را افزایش دهد.

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